Arduino Projects

How to make Arduino Video Game

arduino video game

In this article, you will learn how to make a simple video game using Arduino. You can make this projects easily with less than 15 minutes. All files required for this projects are available to download in this article.

Components Required:

arduino video game components

Arduino Nano [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

16×2 LCD [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

Female Header Pins [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

Tactile switch [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

1K Ohm Resistor [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

10K Ohm trimmer Resistor [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

PCB [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

Tools: Soldering Iron [  Amazon India /  Gearbest ]

Watch Video:

Arduino Video Game Circuit:

arduino video game circuit

Arduino Video Game Code:

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
#define PIN_BUTTON 2
#define PIN_AUTOPLAY 1
#define PIN_READWRITE 10
#define PIN_CONTRAST 7

#define SPRITE_RUN1 1
#define SPRITE_RUN2 2
#define SPRITE_JUMP 3
#define SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER '.' // Use the '.' character for the head
#define SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER 4
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ' ' // User the ' ' character
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID 5
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT 6
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT 7

#define HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION 1 // Horizontal position of hero on screen

#define TERRAIN_WIDTH 16
#define TERRAIN_EMPTY 0
#define TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK 1
#define TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK 2

#define HERO_POSITION_OFF 0 // Hero is invisible
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1 1 // Hero is running on lower row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 2 // (pose 2)

#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1 3 // Starting a jump
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2 4 // Half-way up
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 5 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4 6 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5 7 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6 8 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7 9 // Half-way down
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8 10 // About to land

#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 11 // Hero is running on upper row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2 12 // (pose 2)

LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6);
static char terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static char terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static bool buttonPushed = false;

void initializeGraphics(){
static byte graphics[] = {
// Run position 1
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01110,
B11100,
B01100,
B11010,
B10011,
// Run position 2
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01110,
// Jump
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
// Jump lower
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
// Ground
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
// Ground right
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
// Ground left
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
};
int i;
// Skip using character 0, this allows lcd.print() to be used to
// quickly draw multiple characters
for (i = 0; i < 7; ++i) {
lcd.createChar(i + 1, &graphics[i * 8]);
}
for (i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
terrainUpper[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
terrainLower[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
}
}

// Slide the terrain to the left in half-character increments
//
void advanceTerrain(char* terrain, byte newTerrain){
for (int i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
char current = terrain[i];
char next = (i == TERRAIN_WIDTH-1) ? newTerrain : terrain[i+1];
switch (current){
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
}
}

bool drawHero(byte position, char* terrainUpper, char* terrainLower, unsigned int score) {
bool collide = false;
char upperSave = terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
char lowerSave = terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
byte upper, lower;
switch (position) {
case HERO_POSITION_OFF:
upper = lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN1;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN2;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1:
upper = SPRITE_RUN1;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2:
upper = SPRITE_RUN2;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
if (upper != ' ') {
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upper;
collide = (upperSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
if (lower != ' ') {
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lower;
collide |= (lowerSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}

byte digits = (score > 9999) ? 5 : (score > 999) ? 4 : (score > 99) ? 3 : (score > 9) ? 2 : 1;

// Draw the scene
terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
#define PIN_BUTTON 2
#define PIN_AUTOPLAY 1
#define PIN_READWRITE 10
#define PIN_CONTRAST 7
#define SPRITE_RUN1 1
#define SPRITE_RUN2 2
#define SPRITE_JUMP 3
#define SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER '.' // Use the '.' character for the head
#define SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER 4
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ' ' // User the ' ' character
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID 5
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT 6
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT 7
#define HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION 1 // Horizontal position of hero on screen
#define TERRAIN_WIDTH 16
#define TERRAIN_EMPTY 0
#define TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK 1
#define TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK 2
#define HERO_POSITION_OFF 0 // Hero is invisible
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1 1 // Hero is running on lower row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 2 // (pose 2)
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1 3 // Starting a jump
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2 4 // Half-way up
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 5 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4 6 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5 7 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6 8 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7 9 // Half-way down
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8 10 // About to land
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 11 // Hero is running on upper row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2 12 // (pose 2)
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6);
static char terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static char terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static bool buttonPushed = false;
void initializeGraphics(){
static byte graphics[] = {
// Run position 1
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01110,
B11100,
B01100,
B11010,
B10011,
// Run position 2
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01110,
// Jump
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
// Jump lower
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
// Ground
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
// Ground right
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
// Ground left
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
};
int i;
// Skip using character 0, this allows lcd.print() to be used to
// quickly draw multiple characters
for (i = 0; i < 7; ++i) {
lcd.createChar(i + 1, &graphics[i * 8]);
}
for (i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
terrainUpper[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
terrainLower[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
}
}
// Slide the terrain to the left in half-character increments
//
void advanceTerrain(char* terrain, byte newTerrain){
for (int i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
char current = terrain[i];
char next = (i == TERRAIN_WIDTH-1) ? newTerrain : terrain[i+1];
switch (current){
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
}
}
bool drawHero(byte position, char* terrainUpper, char* terrainLower, unsigned int score) {
bool collide = false;
char upperSave = terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
char lowerSave = terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
byte upper, lower;
switch (position) {
case HERO_POSITION_OFF:
upper = lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN1;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN2;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1:
upper = SPRITE_RUN1;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2:
upper = SPRITE_RUN2;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
if (upper != ' ') {
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upper;
collide = (upperSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
if (lower != ' ') {
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lower;
collide |= (lowerSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
byte digits = (score > 9999) ? 5 : (score > 999) ? 4 : (score > 99) ? 3 : (score > 9) ? 2 : 1;
// Draw the scene
terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
char temp = terrainUpper[16-digits];
terrainUpper[16-digits] = '\0';
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(terrainUpper);
terrainUpper[16-digits] = temp;
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(terrainLower);
lcd.setCursor(16 - digits,0);
lcd.print(score);
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upperSave;
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lowerSave;
return collide;
}
// Handle the button push as an interrupt
void buttonPush() {
buttonPushed = true;
}
void setup(){
pinMode(PIN_READWRITE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_READWRITE, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_CONTRAST, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_CONTRAST, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_BUTTON, INPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_BUTTON, HIGH);
pinMode(PIN_AUTOPLAY, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, HIGH);
// Digital pin 2 maps to interrupt 0
attachInterrupt(0/*PIN_BUTTON*/, buttonPush, FALLING);
initializeGraphics();
lcd.begin(16, 2);
}
void loop(){
static byte heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
static byte newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
static byte newTerrainDuration = 1;
static bool playing = false;
static bool blink = false;
static unsigned int distance = 0;
if (!playing) {
drawHero((blink) ? HERO_POSITION_OFF : heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3);
if (blink) {
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print("Press Start");
}
delay(250);
blink = !blink;
if (buttonPushed) {
initializeGraphics();
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
playing = true;
buttonPushed = false;
distance = 0;
}
return;
}
// Shift the terrain to the left
advanceTerrain(terrainLower, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
advanceTerrain(terrainUpper, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
// Make new terrain to enter on the right
if (--newTerrainDuration == 0) {
if (newTerrainType == TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
newTerrainType = (random(3) == 0) ? TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK : TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK;
newTerrainDuration = 2 + random(10);
} else {
newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
newTerrainDuration = 10 + random(10);
}
}
if (buttonPushed) {
if (heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2) heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1;
buttonPushed = false;
}
if (drawHero(heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3)) {
playing = false; // The hero collided with something. Too bad.
} 
else {
if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 || heroPos == HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
} else if ((heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 && heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5) && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] != SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else if (heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5;
} else if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else {
++heroPos;
}
++distance;
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION + 2] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ? HIGH : LOW);
}
delay(100);
}
'; terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
#define PIN_BUTTON 2
#define PIN_AUTOPLAY 1
#define PIN_READWRITE 10
#define PIN_CONTRAST 7
#define SPRITE_RUN1 1
#define SPRITE_RUN2 2
#define SPRITE_JUMP 3
#define SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER '.' // Use the '.' character for the head
#define SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER 4
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ' ' // User the ' ' character
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID 5
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT 6
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT 7
#define HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION 1 // Horizontal position of hero on screen
#define TERRAIN_WIDTH 16
#define TERRAIN_EMPTY 0
#define TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK 1
#define TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK 2
#define HERO_POSITION_OFF 0 // Hero is invisible
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1 1 // Hero is running on lower row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 2 // (pose 2)
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1 3 // Starting a jump
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2 4 // Half-way up
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 5 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4 6 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5 7 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6 8 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7 9 // Half-way down
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8 10 // About to land
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 11 // Hero is running on upper row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2 12 // (pose 2)
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6);
static char terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static char terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static bool buttonPushed = false;
void initializeGraphics(){
static byte graphics[] = {
// Run position 1
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01110,
B11100,
B01100,
B11010,
B10011,
// Run position 2
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01110,
// Jump
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
// Jump lower
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
// Ground
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
// Ground right
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
// Ground left
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
};
int i;
// Skip using character 0, this allows lcd.print() to be used to
// quickly draw multiple characters
for (i = 0; i < 7; ++i) {
lcd.createChar(i + 1, &graphics[i * 8]);
}
for (i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
terrainUpper[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
terrainLower[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
}
}
// Slide the terrain to the left in half-character increments
//
void advanceTerrain(char* terrain, byte newTerrain){
for (int i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
char current = terrain[i];
char next = (i == TERRAIN_WIDTH-1) ? newTerrain : terrain[i+1];
switch (current){
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
}
}
bool drawHero(byte position, char* terrainUpper, char* terrainLower, unsigned int score) {
bool collide = false;
char upperSave = terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
char lowerSave = terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
byte upper, lower;
switch (position) {
case HERO_POSITION_OFF:
upper = lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN1;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN2;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1:
upper = SPRITE_RUN1;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2:
upper = SPRITE_RUN2;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
if (upper != ' ') {
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upper;
collide = (upperSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
if (lower != ' ') {
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lower;
collide |= (lowerSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
byte digits = (score > 9999) ? 5 : (score > 999) ? 4 : (score > 99) ? 3 : (score > 9) ? 2 : 1;
// Draw the scene
terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
char temp = terrainUpper[16-digits];
terrainUpper[16-digits] = '\0';
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(terrainUpper);
terrainUpper[16-digits] = temp;
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(terrainLower);
lcd.setCursor(16 - digits,0);
lcd.print(score);
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upperSave;
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lowerSave;
return collide;
}
// Handle the button push as an interrupt
void buttonPush() {
buttonPushed = true;
}
void setup(){
pinMode(PIN_READWRITE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_READWRITE, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_CONTRAST, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_CONTRAST, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_BUTTON, INPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_BUTTON, HIGH);
pinMode(PIN_AUTOPLAY, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, HIGH);
// Digital pin 2 maps to interrupt 0
attachInterrupt(0/*PIN_BUTTON*/, buttonPush, FALLING);
initializeGraphics();
lcd.begin(16, 2);
}
void loop(){
static byte heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
static byte newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
static byte newTerrainDuration = 1;
static bool playing = false;
static bool blink = false;
static unsigned int distance = 0;
if (!playing) {
drawHero((blink) ? HERO_POSITION_OFF : heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3);
if (blink) {
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print("Press Start");
}
delay(250);
blink = !blink;
if (buttonPushed) {
initializeGraphics();
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
playing = true;
buttonPushed = false;
distance = 0;
}
return;
}
// Shift the terrain to the left
advanceTerrain(terrainLower, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
advanceTerrain(terrainUpper, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
// Make new terrain to enter on the right
if (--newTerrainDuration == 0) {
if (newTerrainType == TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
newTerrainType = (random(3) == 0) ? TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK : TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK;
newTerrainDuration = 2 + random(10);
} else {
newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
newTerrainDuration = 10 + random(10);
}
}
if (buttonPushed) {
if (heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2) heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1;
buttonPushed = false;
}
if (drawHero(heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3)) {
playing = false; // The hero collided with something. Too bad.
} 
else {
if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 || heroPos == HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
} else if ((heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 && heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5) && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] != SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else if (heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5;
} else if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else {
++heroPos;
}
++distance;
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION + 2] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ? HIGH : LOW);
}
delay(100);
}
'; char temp = terrainUpper[16-digits]; terrainUpper[16-digits] = '
#include <LiquidCrystal.h>
#define PIN_BUTTON 2
#define PIN_AUTOPLAY 1
#define PIN_READWRITE 10
#define PIN_CONTRAST 7
#define SPRITE_RUN1 1
#define SPRITE_RUN2 2
#define SPRITE_JUMP 3
#define SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER '.' // Use the '.' character for the head
#define SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER 4
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ' ' // User the ' ' character
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID 5
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT 6
#define SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT 7
#define HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION 1 // Horizontal position of hero on screen
#define TERRAIN_WIDTH 16
#define TERRAIN_EMPTY 0
#define TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK 1
#define TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK 2
#define HERO_POSITION_OFF 0 // Hero is invisible
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1 1 // Hero is running on lower row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 2 // (pose 2)
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1 3 // Starting a jump
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2 4 // Half-way up
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 5 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4 6 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5 7 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6 8 // Jump is on upper row
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7 9 // Half-way down
#define HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8 10 // About to land
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 11 // Hero is running on upper row (pose 1)
#define HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2 12 // (pose 2)
LiquidCrystal lcd(12, 11, 3, 4, 5, 6);
static char terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static char terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH + 1];
static bool buttonPushed = false;
void initializeGraphics(){
static byte graphics[] = {
// Run position 1
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01110,
B11100,
B01100,
B11010,
B10011,
// Run position 2
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01100,
B01110,
// Jump
B01100,
B01100,
B00000,
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
// Jump lower
B11110,
B01101,
B11111,
B10000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
B00000,
// Ground
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
B11111,
// Ground right
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
B00011,
// Ground left
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
B11000,
};
int i;
// Skip using character 0, this allows lcd.print() to be used to
// quickly draw multiple characters
for (i = 0; i < 7; ++i) {
lcd.createChar(i + 1, &graphics[i * 8]);
}
for (i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
terrainUpper[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
terrainLower[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
}
}
// Slide the terrain to the left in half-character increments
//
void advanceTerrain(char* terrain, byte newTerrain){
for (int i = 0; i < TERRAIN_WIDTH; ++i) {
char current = terrain[i];
char next = (i == TERRAIN_WIDTH-1) ? newTerrain : terrain[i+1];
switch (current){
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID:
terrain[i] = (next == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT : SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_RIGHT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID;
break;
case SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID_LEFT:
terrain[i] = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
}
}
bool drawHero(byte position, char* terrainUpper, char* terrainLower, unsigned int score) {
bool collide = false;
char upperSave = terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
char lowerSave = terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION];
byte upper, lower;
switch (position) {
case HERO_POSITION_OFF:
upper = lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN1;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_RUN2;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8:
upper = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_2:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_7:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP_UPPER;
lower = SPRITE_JUMP_LOWER;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_4:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5:
case HERO_POSITION_JUMP_6:
upper = SPRITE_JUMP;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1:
upper = SPRITE_RUN1;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
case HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2:
upper = SPRITE_RUN2;
lower = SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY;
break;
}
if (upper != ' ') {
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upper;
collide = (upperSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
if (lower != ' ') {
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lower;
collide |= (lowerSave == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) ? false : true;
}
byte digits = (score > 9999) ? 5 : (score > 999) ? 4 : (score > 99) ? 3 : (score > 9) ? 2 : 1;
// Draw the scene
terrainUpper[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
terrainLower[TERRAIN_WIDTH] = '\0';
char temp = terrainUpper[16-digits];
terrainUpper[16-digits] = '\0';
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print(terrainUpper);
terrainUpper[16-digits] = temp;
lcd.setCursor(0,1);
lcd.print(terrainLower);
lcd.setCursor(16 - digits,0);
lcd.print(score);
terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upperSave;
terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lowerSave;
return collide;
}
// Handle the button push as an interrupt
void buttonPush() {
buttonPushed = true;
}
void setup(){
pinMode(PIN_READWRITE, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_READWRITE, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_CONTRAST, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_CONTRAST, LOW);
pinMode(PIN_BUTTON, INPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_BUTTON, HIGH);
pinMode(PIN_AUTOPLAY, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, HIGH);
// Digital pin 2 maps to interrupt 0
attachInterrupt(0/*PIN_BUTTON*/, buttonPush, FALLING);
initializeGraphics();
lcd.begin(16, 2);
}
void loop(){
static byte heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
static byte newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
static byte newTerrainDuration = 1;
static bool playing = false;
static bool blink = false;
static unsigned int distance = 0;
if (!playing) {
drawHero((blink) ? HERO_POSITION_OFF : heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3);
if (blink) {
lcd.setCursor(0,0);
lcd.print("Press Start");
}
delay(250);
blink = !blink;
if (buttonPushed) {
initializeGraphics();
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
playing = true;
buttonPushed = false;
distance = 0;
}
return;
}
// Shift the terrain to the left
advanceTerrain(terrainLower, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
advanceTerrain(terrainUpper, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY);
// Make new terrain to enter on the right
if (--newTerrainDuration == 0) {
if (newTerrainType == TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
newTerrainType = (random(3) == 0) ? TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK : TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK;
newTerrainDuration = 2 + random(10);
} else {
newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY;
newTerrainDuration = 10 + random(10);
}
}
if (buttonPushed) {
if (heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2) heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1;
buttonPushed = false;
}
if (drawHero(heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3)) {
playing = false; // The hero collided with something. Too bad.
} 
else {
if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 || heroPos == HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1;
} else if ((heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 && heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5) && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] != SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else if (heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5;
} else if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2) {
heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1;
} else {
++heroPos;
}
++distance;
digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION + 2] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ? HIGH : LOW);
}
delay(100);
}
'; lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print(terrainUpper); terrainUpper[16-digits] = temp; lcd.setCursor(0,1); lcd.print(terrainLower); lcd.setCursor(16 - digits,0); lcd.print(score); terrainUpper[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = upperSave; terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] = lowerSave; return collide; } // Handle the button push as an interrupt void buttonPush() { buttonPushed = true; } void setup(){ pinMode(PIN_READWRITE, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(PIN_READWRITE, LOW); pinMode(PIN_CONTRAST, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(PIN_CONTRAST, LOW); pinMode(PIN_BUTTON, INPUT); digitalWrite(PIN_BUTTON, HIGH); pinMode(PIN_AUTOPLAY, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, HIGH); // Digital pin 2 maps to interrupt 0 attachInterrupt(0/*PIN_BUTTON*/, buttonPush, FALLING); initializeGraphics(); lcd.begin(16, 2); } void loop(){ static byte heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1; static byte newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY; static byte newTerrainDuration = 1; static bool playing = false; static bool blink = false; static unsigned int distance = 0; if (!playing) { drawHero((blink) ? HERO_POSITION_OFF : heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3); if (blink) { lcd.setCursor(0,0); lcd.print("Press Start"); } delay(250); blink = !blink; if (buttonPushed) { initializeGraphics(); heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1; playing = true; buttonPushed = false; distance = 0; } return; } // Shift the terrain to the left advanceTerrain(terrainLower, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY); advanceTerrain(terrainUpper, newTerrainType == TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK ? SPRITE_TERRAIN_SOLID : SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY); // Make new terrain to enter on the right if (--newTerrainDuration == 0) { if (newTerrainType == TERRAIN_EMPTY) { newTerrainType = (random(3) == 0) ? TERRAIN_UPPER_BLOCK : TERRAIN_LOWER_BLOCK; newTerrainDuration = 2 + random(10); } else { newTerrainType = TERRAIN_EMPTY; newTerrainDuration = 10 + random(10); } } if (buttonPushed) { if (heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2) heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_1; buttonPushed = false; } if (drawHero(heroPos, terrainUpper, terrainLower, distance >> 3)) { playing = false; // The hero collided with something. Too bad. } else { if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_2 || heroPos == HERO_POSITION_JUMP_8) { heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_LOWER_1; } else if ((heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_3 && heroPos <= HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5) && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] != SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) { heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1; } else if (heroPos >= HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1 && terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY) { heroPos = HERO_POSITION_JUMP_5; } else if (heroPos == HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_2) { heroPos = HERO_POSITION_RUN_UPPER_1; } else { ++heroPos; } ++distance; digitalWrite(PIN_AUTOPLAY, terrainLower[HERO_HORIZONTAL_POSITION + 2] == SPRITE_TERRAIN_EMPTY ? HIGH : LOW); } delay(100); }

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